THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE (SAW-DUST)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

Cellulose is the name given to a long chain of atoms consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged in a particular manner it is a naturally occurring polymeric material containing thousands of glucose-like rings each of which contain three alcoholic OH groups. Its general each of which contain three alcoholic OH groups. Its general formula is represented as (C6H1005)n. the oh-groups present in cellulose can be esterifies or etherified, the most important cellulose derivatives are the esters.
Cellulose is found in nature in almost all forms of plant life’s, and especially in cotton and wood. A cellulose molecule is made up of large number of glucose units linked together by oxygen atom. Each glucose unit contains three(3) hydroxyl groups, the hydroxyl groups present at carbon-6 is primary, while two other hydroxyl are secondary. Cellulose is the most abundant organic chemical on earth more than 50% of the carbon is plants occurs in the cellulose of stems and leave wood is largely cellulose, and cotton is more than 90% cellulose. It is a major constituent of plant cell walls that provides strength and rigidity and presents the swelling of the cell and rupture of the palms membrane that might result when osmotic conditions favor water entry into the cell. Cellulose is a fibrous, ought, water-insoluble substances, it can be seen in cell walls of plants, particularly in stalks, stems, trunks and all woody portions of the plant.
Cellulose is polymorphic, i.e there are number of different crystalline forms that reflect the history of the molecule. It is almost impossible to describe cellulose chemistry and biochemistry without referring to those different forms. Cellulose are gotten from cellulose, cellulose is also found in protozoa in the gut of insects such as termites. Very strong acids can also degrade cellulose, the human digestive system has little effect on cellulose. The world cellulose means β-1, 4- D glucan, regardless of source because of the importance of cellulose and difficulty in unraveling its secrets regarding structure, biosynthesis, chemistry, and other aspects, several societies are dedicated to cellulose, lignin, and related molecues.

1.2 Definition of Terms

Hydrolysis: means hydro (water) lysis (splitting) or breaking down of a chemical bond by the addition of water (H2O), it is by the introduction of the elements that make up water hydrogen and oxygen. The reactions are more complicated than just adding water to a compound, but by the end of a hydrolysis reaction, there will be two more hydrogen’s and one more oxygen shared between the products, than there were before the reaction occurred.
Hydrolysis of cellulose therefore is the process of breaking down the glucosidic bonds that holds the glucose basic units together to term a large cellulose molecule, it is a term used to describe the overall process where cellulsose is converted into various sweeteners.
Sugar: is the generalized name for a class of chemically related sweet – flavored substances, most of which are used as food. They are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are various sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharide’s and include glucose cellos known as dextrose, fructose and galactose. The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide other disacclarides include maltose and lacoose. Chemically-different substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar but as artificial sweeteners.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The new government policies and economy through low quality products has imposed motivated researchers to explore the numerous domestic, industrial and economic importance of the Nigeria’s major waste product which is “cellulose” which forms the bedrock of this project.
Sugar is a high demand for both domestic and industrial applications on daily basis in homes, small and medium scale industries etc this is why Nigeria government spends huge sums of money on importation of sugar and sugar products to meet the demand of citizens. Among the many processes of sugar production, is acid hydrolysis of (cellulose) has proved to be a process which encourages the production of high quality with minimum skill and materials. This work is therefore an effort to encourage industrialist, researchers, and students to carry out more intensive studies on production of sugar from cellulose for production of sugar and enhanced economic resources for the nation.

1.4 SCOPE AND OF STUDY LIMITATIONS

This study is aimed at estimating the impact of some areas hindering the subject/project matter (disadvantages) the cellulose.
It is obvious that cellulose materials have been used, including newspaper, carboard, cotton, straw, sawdust, hemp and corncob. Monticell was insulated with a form of cellulose. Modern cellulose insulation, made with recycled newspaper using grinding and dust removing machines and adding a fire retardant, began in the 1950s and came into general use in the U.S during the 1970s.

The R value Rule” placed clear limitations on the claims that manufacturing and marketing firms can make about their product, then also the effect of regulations by the CPSC put most of the small producers of cellulose insulation out of business. The costs incurred by increasing fire testing made cellulose more expensive and the bad publicity helped decrease demand.
Cellulose also has a few disadvantages. As compared to other insulation options, the R-value of 3.6 to 3.8 per inch is good but not the best. Many spray foams utilizes an environmentally harmful blowing agent, such as enovate HFC, cellulose does not.
Dust: Cellulose contains some small particles which can be blown into the house through inadequate seals around fixtures or minute holes.
Wet-spray drying time: We-spray provides the moisture requires a longer drying time before the drywall/sheet-rock is applied to a newly insulation.

1.5 OBJECTIVES

The principal aim of undertaking this project is to determine the effect of concentration of acid on the yield of glucose production by acid hydrolysis of cellulose.
Hydrolysis of cellulose into glucose using different concentration of hydrochloric acid.
Calculating and quantifying the yield of glucose from hydrolysis of cellulose using HCL acid.
In the experiment, cellulose from variety of sources will be subjected to depolymerization conditions.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROJECT TOPICS