CHAPTER ONE

                        1.0 INTRODUCTION

                     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Liver is the largest and most complex internal organ in the body. It plays an important role in the maintenance of internal environment through its multiple and diverse functions. Liver is involved in several vital functions such as metabolism, secretion and storage. Hepatitis or inflammatory disorder involves inflammation and damage to the hepatocytes. Hepatitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Every year 18,000 people had been reported to die due to liver cirrhosis caused by viral hepatitis [L] Ectopic fat storage occurs in obesity particularly in the liver leading to a condition termed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD] characterized by varying degree of liver injury that progresses from steatosis to tratohepatitis, fibrosis and necrosis Due to its prominent association with IR (insulin resistance). Obesity, NAFLD is regarded as the hepatic manifestation of metabolite [3] syndrome. Liver has great capacity to detoxicate toxic substances.

Kola pod is the traditional health food around the world. Kola pod Husk meal is the residue after grinding the pod of kola and filtration, and it is an excellent source in slightly high in fiber (16.74%), low in crude protein (9.98%), moderate NFE (42.391) and metabolizable energy 2497 kcal/kg, and ash content is relatively high. (13.26%). when companied with the values reported by (Oluokun, 1999) ;(Hamzat and Babatunde, 2001). These differences might be due to varietals differenced and shelf life of the test ingredient before analysis. However, the crude protein content fairly put kola pod husk meal (KPHM) with feed ingredients like Sorghum while the fibre content put it in same proximate composition with Bremer‘s grains. Kola pod being one of the important pods for medical treatment in the world. The kola pod husk provides some essential materials for doth drying. The pod bark, when mixed with some ingredients is used in traditional medicine to reduce Labour pains. The bark is used in treating swellings and fresh wounds. The roots provide excellent chewing sticks for cleaning the teeth and the wood is used in local carvings coachwork and boatbuilding. Lipid refers to the different kind of fats present in the bodies of human plasma include triglyceride (TG), phospholipids (PL), cholesterol esters (CE), and free cholesterol (FC) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA. Each lipid plays a different role in our bodies yet all of them except free cholesterol (FC) contain esters of long chain fatty acid in their structures. Lipids are insoluble in plasma due to their non- polar structures thus; they need some carriers that are soluble in polar and non- polar environment. Lipids are packaged and carried in the form of lipoprotein, which is a molecule that contains both protein (i.e. apolipoprotein) and lipids.

Statins (lipitor) are group of drugs approved for their Cholesterol reduction properties and are commonly used to treat atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. These drugs inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-COA) reductase. The rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis; which converts HMG.CoA to mevalonate. Apart from cholesterol, mevalonate is also the substrate for the synthesis of nonsteroid, isoprenoids such as coenzyme Q. Depletion of these isoprenoids results in the so called plelotropic effects of statins which are independent of cholesterol.

Lowering effect.These plelotropic effects of anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and ant-proliferative effect. In addition, data from experimental and observational studies indicated that statins have neuroprotective effects and be a treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system and the ocular structures particularly the retina (schemer, 2007). Statins (Atorvastatin) is widely used in the treatment of hepatic diseases. They have been widely used in chinning proactive as cholesterol lowering agents to reduce mobility and mortality from coronary artery diseases. It also has an effect in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis.

However, limited studies are available on the effect of kola pod husk meal treatment on hepatoprotective effect in high fat diet fed animal in this regard, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of kola pod meal on high-fat fed rats related to different hepatoprotective effect by comparing Lipitor

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A confident and reliable IT support engineer with extensive practical experience of working with computers and resolving any support issues that are raised to the service desk. Possessing a proven ability to administer and control the operation, configuration and maintenance of computer based information systems, as well as having an eye for detail and able to multi-task under pressure. An excellent communicator can relate well with people at all levels and has the flexibility of working well as part of a team and on my own.